Research and monitoring for and with raptors in Europe
May 2010 - May 2015

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Submission #13

Tue, 2013-01-01
Portugal
Multidisciplinary study of the tree-nesting population of Bonelli's eagle of southern Portugal
1991
2012
Regional
Estremadura, Alentejo and Algarve
currently CIBIO, previously CCMAR then CEAI
Private
6
No
Bonelli's Eagle (Aquila fasciata)
Regular breeder
No
50-80%
<20%
Yes
No
No
No
  • Special Protection Areas (SPAs)
  • Important Bird Areas (IBAs)
  • Areas protected by national law (national parks, protected landscape areas etc.)
Yes
Areas not designated but with breeding pairs
No
Yes
1991
2012
Yes
1991
2012
No
Yes
1991
2012
Yes
1991
2012
No
Yes
1991
2012
Yes
1991
2012
Yes
1991
2012
Yes
1994
2012
No
No
Yes
Forestry (intensification, deforestation, selective logging)
Forest and tree loss and degradation
Hunting and persecution (trapping, poisoning, shooting)
Disturbance by forestry operations, natural events (rainy weather)
1991
2012
Yes
1992
2001
No
No
No
Yes
Total count
More than once a year
Yes
Total count
More than once a year
Yes
Yes
Total count
More than once a year
Yes
No
Yes
Annually
No
Yes
No
Yes
More than once a year
Yes
Yes
More than once a year
Yes
No
Yes
Birds marked with wingtags and colour rings, then only clour rings, then 10 birds with PTTs
More than once a year
Yes
Yes
1997
1997
Yes
2004
2012
Yes
1994
2000
No
No
No
Yes
1992
2001
Yes
1992
2001
Yes
Prey remains, direct observation of prey on nests
1992
2001
Yes
1993
2000
Yes
1993
2000
No
Yes
2008
2010
No
Yes
1993
1996
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Not annually but regularly
Yes
National Institute of Nature Conservation (currently ICNF); European Commission (LIFE-Nature project), Paper pulp companies, Energy companies.
Yes
Annually
Yes
Annually
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
GTAB/SPEA. Grupo de Trabalho em Águia de Bonelli (Working Group on Bonelli's Eagle - Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds)
No
Too variable through time (c. 20 yrs) for an objective assessment
3
<20%
250
1. Palma, L., M.C. Pais & B. Fráguas 1996. Status and distribution of Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in Portugal. 2ndInternational Conference on Raptors, Urbino, Italia, n/publ.
2. Palma, L., N. Ferrand, L. Cancela, P. Beja, B. Fráguas. M. Pais, P. Cardia, T. Guillemaud, D. Figueiredo & L. Cancela da Fonseca 1998. Conservation studies on Bonelli’s Eagle in Portugal. Vth World Conf. Birds of Prey and Owls. Midrand, Johannesburg, n/publ.
3. Cardia, P., B. Fráguas, M. Pais, T. Guillemaud, L. Palma, M. L. Cancela, N. Ferrand & M. Wink 2000. Preliminary genetic analysis of some Western Palearctic populations of Bonelli’s Eagle, Hieraaetus fasciatus. Raptors at Risk (Proc. Vth World Conf. Birds of Prey and Owls. Midrand, Johannesburg (1998): 845-851.
4. Höfle, U., J. M. Blanco, L. Palma & P. Melo 2000. Trichomoniasis in Bonelli's Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) Nestlings in South-west Portugal. Pp. 45-52 in J.T. Lumeij, J.D. Remple, P.T. Redig, M. Lierz and J.E. Cooper [EDS.], Raptor Biomedicine III. Zoological Education Network, Inc. Lake Worth (FL), U.S.A.
5. Palma, L., S. Mira, P. Cardia, P. Beja, T. Guillemaud, N. Ferrand & L. Cancela 2001. Sexing Bonelli’s Eagle nestlings: morphometrics versus molecular techniques. The Journal of Raptor Research 35 (3): 187-193.
6. Palma, L. 2001. El águila perdicera en Portugal: situación, conservación e investigación. Congreso Internacional de Gestión de ZEPAS, Conservación del Aguila Perdicera y Buitre Negro. Cáceres, Spain.
4. Blanco, J. M., U. Höfle, L. Palma, B. Fráguas & M. J. Blánquez 2001. Ultrasctructural abnormalities in Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) egg shell and membranes in the Iberian Peninsula. 4th Eurasian Congress on Raptors, Sevilla, Spain.
5. Cardia, P., B. Fráguas, M. Pais, T. Guillemaud, L. Palma, L. Cancela, N. Ferrand. 2001. Análise da Variação Genética de Proteínas em Populações Mediterrânicas de Águia de Bonelli Hieraaetus fasciatus (Vieillot, 1822). III Congresso de Ornitologia da SPEA, Castelo Branco, Portugal.
6. Palma, L., P. Beja, P. C. Tavares and L. R. Monteiro 2005. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli’s eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination . Environmental Pollution 134: 549-557.
7. Palma L., P. Beja, M. Pais and L. C. da Fonseca 2006. Why do raptors take domestic prey? The case of Bonelli’s eagles and pigeons. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 1075–1086.
8. Beja, P. and L. Palma 2008. Limitations of methods to test density-dependent fecundity hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology 77, 335–340.
9. Palma, L. 2007. Trichomoniasis in Bonelli’s Eagle nestlings in southern Portugal. International Workshop on Trichomoniasis in the Bonelli’s Eagle: epidemiology, prophylaxis and treatment, Mértola, Portugal.
10. Palma, L., A. Dias, R. Cangarato, C. Carrapato, R. Ferreira, M. C. Pais, & P. Beja 2009. An Exception to the Rule: The Fast Growing Tree-nesting Bonelli’s Eagle (Aquila fasciata) Population of Southern Portugal. Raptor Research Foundation 2009 Annual Conference, Pitlochry, Scotland.
11. Palma, L., A. Dias, R. Cangarato, R. Ferreira & C. Carrapato 2009. Distribuição e situação populacional de Aquila fasciata a Sul do Tejo e Estremadura. VI Congresso de Ornitologia da SPEA - IV Congresso Ibérico de Ornitologia, Elvas, Portugal.
12. Rosário, I., Tomé, R., Cardoso, P. & Palma, L. 2009. Response of Bonelli’s eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus to electric power line presence. European Ornithologists' Union Conference 2009. Zurique, Switzerland.
13. Rosário, I., Tomé, R., Cardoso, P. & Palma, L. 2009. Territoriality of an arboreal population Bonelli’s Eagles Hieraaetus fasciatus in southwest Portugal. European Ornithologists' Union Conference 2009. Zurique, Switzerland.
14. Moleón M., J. A. Sánchez-Zapata, J. Real, J. A. García-Charton, J. M. Gil-Sánchez, L. Palma, J. Bautista and P. Bayle 2009. Large scale spatio-temporal shifts in the diet of a predator mediated by an emerging infectious disease of its main prey. Journal of Biogeography, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02078.x
15. Palma, L., A. Dias, R. Cangarato, M. Pais, R. Ferreira & C. Carrapato 2010. Spécificités, dynamique de la population d’Aigles de Bonelli dans le Sud du Portugal. Colloque Aigle de Bonelli, Agropolis, Montpellier, France.
15. Moleón, M., Sebastián-González, E., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Real, J., Pires, M.M., Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Bautista, J., Palma, L., Bayle, P., Guimarães Jr, P.R. and Beja, P. 2012. Changes in intrapopulation resource use patterns of an endangered raptor in response to a disease-mediated crash in prey abundance. Journal of Animal Ecology 81, 1154–1160.
16. Hernández-Matías, A., Real, J., Moleón, M., Palma, L., Sánchez-Zapata, J.A., Pradel, R., Carrete, M., Gil-Sánchez, J.M., Beja, P., Balbontín, J., Vincent-Martin, N., Ravayrol, A., Benítez, J.R., Arroyo, B., Fernández, C., Ferreiro, E. and García, J., in press. From local monitoring to a broad-scale viability assessment: a case study for the endangered Bonelli's eagle in W Europe. Ecological Monographs (accepted November 2012).
17. Mira, S., Arnaud-Haond, S., Palma, L., Cancela, M.L. and Beja, P. submitted. Large scale population genetic structure in a highly mobile bird of prey, the Bonelli’s Eagle Aquila fasciata. Ibis (provisionally accepted September 2012).
The long term monitoring will continue, although in 2012 was only partially carried out due to lack of funds.